Direct Preferential Flotation Process
The flotation process of various useful minerals is sequenced in a preferential flotation process. This process is adaptable to changes in ore grade and is highly flexible. It is more suitable for primary sulfide ores with higher grades. For example, the Xilin, Fankou, and Lechang lead-zinc concentrators in China, and the Laisvall lead-zinc concentrator in Sweden all use this process.
Mixed Flotation Process
In the mixed flotation process, all useful minerals in the ore are floated together to obtain a mixed concentrate, which is then separated into various useful minerals in turn. This simplifies the process and reduces excessive crushing of minerals, making it conducive to sorting. The Almak Lead-Zinc Concentrator in the former Soviet Union adopted this process and achieved higher indices than the preferential flotation process. The grade of lead concentrate increased by 10%, the grade of zinc concentrate increased by 4.5%, the comprehensive utilization rate of ores increased from 75.4% to 83.7%, and labor productivity was doubled. The production process of the Qingchengzi Lead-Zinc Concentrator and Xiaotieshan Copper Mine in China was also improved using this process.
Partial Mixed Flotation Process
In the partial mixed flotation process, a mixed concentrate is obtained by floating two useful minerals together, which is then separated into a single concentrate. This is the most widely used process in production. When the grade of copper, molybdenum, lead, or zinc in the raw ore is low, this process is often used economically. The Taolin, Huanren, Tianbaoshan, Hesan, Zhanggongling, and Bajiazi copper, lead, and zinc concentrators in China use this process.
Flotation Process with Equal Floatability
The flotation process with equal floatability involves successively floating minerals with good, medium, and poor floatability, and then separating the mixed concentrates into different useful minerals. The Huangshaping Lead-Zinc Mine in China and the Zhezkaz Dry Copper-Lead Mine in the former Soviet Union both use this process.
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